Daily Relations Among Alcohol and Cannabis Co-Use, Simultaneous Use, and Negative Consequences: A Day-Level Latent Profile Analysis


  • Jack Waddell Arizona State University
  • Abigail McDonald Arizona State University
  • Rishika Shah Arizona State University
  • William R. Corbin Arizona State University


Objective: Concurrent and simultaneous cannabis and alcohol co-use confers risk for daily negative alcohol consequences. However, studies often treat co-use as a dichotomy, precluding examination of higher- and lower-risk co-use days. Additionally, little is known about specific alcohol consequences associated with daily co-use. Therefore, the current study 1) differentiated days based upon alcohol consumption, co-use, and simultaneous use, and 2) tested whether certain day-level use patterns conferred risk for daily alcohol consequences. Methods: College student co-users (N=489) completed an online Timeline Followback, reporting daily alcohol consumption, negative alcohol consequences, concurrent cannabis and alcohol co-use, and simultaneous co-use (SAM) on drinking days over the past month. Day-Level Latent Profile Analysis differentiated days based upon drinking quantity, co-use, and simultaneous use, and tested whether patterns of use conferred risk for overall and specific negative alcohol consequences. Results: Four day-level profiles emerged, including moderate consumption of alcohol-only days (57.5%), moderate consumption SAM use days (29.1%), higher consumption alcohol-only days (7.4%), and higher consumption SAM use days (6%). Higher consumption SAM use days were associated with more negative alcohol consequences than all other days; however, higher consumption SAM use days differed from higher consumption alcohol-only days in acute dependence symptoms. Higher consumption alcohol-only days were associated with more negative alcohol consequences than moderate consumption SAM days, particularly those that were action-oriented (i.e., dependence symptoms, blackout drinking, impaired control, risky behavior, social/interpersonal consequences). Conclusions: Findings suggest that there are in fact lower-risk co-use days, and that links with unique negative alcohol consequences depend on levels of alcohol consumption and co-use.